This monograph is dedicated to the European Union's Human Brain Project.
The European Union is investing EUR 1.19 billion in the Human
Brain Project to research how the human brain works. The results so far
have been rather poor and the number of critics is growing. It cannot be
due to enthusiasm. The supporters expect huge advances in the treatment
of diseases, but also in the development of artificial intelligence,
which could exceed the human brain by orders of magnitude. So what is
Around 60,000 publications on this subject appear annually. In
view of the huge flood of information, it obviously needs a person who
is willing and able to not only internalize this amount of facts, but to
recognize a common thread that runs through them and ultimately leads
to the recognition of the principles of action of the brain. In his
opinion, the author has solved this task and is offering the European
Union's Human Brain Project a self-contained vertebrate brain theory.
Now the Human Brain Project is looking for a human brain theory,
but we should keep in mind that humans are undoubtedly vertebrates.
The theory developed here includes the development of the
central nervous system of vertebrates in the course of evolution,
starting with the simplest bilateria with a rope nerve system.
Furthermore, it includes the derivation of the functioning of many
substructures of the brain in relation to the signal processing that
takes place in them. One flaw of this theory is that it is in German.
This deficiency can be remedied by a translation into the English
language. Someone who puts together the hundreds of thousands of facts
of brain research into a puzzle has no memory capacity left on his hard
drive to master the spoken and written English language.
The author has invested an estimated 20,000 hours of work in
this project, completely unselfishly and without remuneration, and he is
unwilling to take this theory to the grave unpublished, especially
since he has already started his seventieth year. This monograph is
quasi his scientific testament for the European Union. After submitting
the monograph, Springer-Verlag initially agreed to print this work and
thus make it available to the general public. After completion of the
economic calculations, however, no printing was carried out.
Nevertheless, Springer-Verlag and especially Dr. Thanks to Stephanie
Preuss for the effort involved.
Other publishers have also canceled due to inefficiency.
Therefore, this monograph is self-published. It is noticeable
here that you can neither fall back on a proofreading nor on talented
graphic designers if you do not want to completely ruin yourself
financially. The reader is therefore asked to be lenient.
To this day, the origin of the vertebrate brain is in the dark.
It is assumed that it developed from the simplest nervous systems of the
most elementary forms of life. The process started over 700 million
years ago. None of us have been there, and yet there are witnesses to
this development. Every neuron nucleus, every nerve cord, every neuronal
substructure in the vertebrate brain bears witness to the gradual
development of the central nervous system of the vertebrates.
The almost unmanageable amount of facts that have been gathered
over the millennia about the nervous system of the vertebrates, the
brains of the mammals and the human brain eludes a complex consideration
just by its abundance. The mere listing of the names of those who have
made significant contributions to the research of this subject is a
specialty in itself. Likewise, it seems impossible for the author to
provide the primary source for every fact, if science historians are
concerned with this important concern.
The fact that scientists in a wide range of fields have to deal
with this issue is making it difficult to elucidate the functioning of
the central nervous system in humans. For example, those processes in
the cell membrane of nerve cells that enable action potential require
extensive knowledge in the fields of organic chemistry and physics, even
mathematical aspects have to be taken into account. The structures of
the human brain and those of mammals and vertebrates are so complex that
it takes many years to know the most important of them.The tremendous
complexity of the connections between the different neuronal structures
of the nervous system complicates the recognition of a system that would
be suspected. To make matters worse, in neurology, which is a sub-area
of medical science, all substructures, all nerve tracts, almost
everything has been given Latin terms, which demand a lot from the
The longing for an answer to the origin of soul and spirit is
unbroken. The mathematicians took on this topic and created very
abstract models to analyze the development of intelligence in neural
networks. The level of abstraction reached is so great that you can
still find objects in neural networks that have similar properties to
nerve cells, but you are looking in vain for the substructures that are
actually present in the human brain, for example. No neural network has a
central tegmental tract or a pyramidal tract. Similar to the six-layer
human cortex, there are layered neural networks,but their stratification
has absolutely nothing in common with the neuronal layers of the brain.
Of course, these researchers have the right to develop completely
abstract artificial systems that produce intelligence. But others also
have the right to design models that are based on the structure and
function of the real brain, as is intended in this monograph.
The theory presented here begins with the primordial mucus, with
the unicellular organisms, it leads to the chord data via the
multicellular organisms and the segmented bilateria. This is the only
way to understand how the central nervous system gradually emerged. And a
development that has spanned many millions of years, if you want to
convincingly understand it, cannot be short and sweet. It will be
extensive, go into detail, have to show every important development
step, because only then will there be a self-contained chain of evidence
that is convincing enough. So the reader will be asked for some
patience and perseverance. One or the other will find that they first
have to close gaps in their knowledge,to understand the theoretical
elements presented. Chapters 1 and 2 therefore recapitulate the current
state of knowledge of the vertebrate brain and especially the human
brain. Only then does the description of the vertebrate brain theory
developed by the author begin.
The theory presented here may give the impression that the path
of the nervous system from the primitive bilaterium to Homo sapiens is
somehow a logical and legal sequence of individual development steps.
But we should keep in mind that at every stage of development there have
been millions of variations that have been different and the results of
which have not led to the path that vertebrates, mammals or even
primates have followed. With all the inherent logic, the development
path shown here ultimately came about by chance. In the derivation of
the theory presented here, the author managed to filter out the wealth
of possible development variants over many years,where on the one hand
the neuronal connection corresponded to the observed reality, on the
other hand the signal processing taking place there was seamlessly
integrated into the emerging overall system. In retrospect, many of the
developed functional variants turned out to be incorrect and were
rejected, corrected or modified. Countless folders with hypotheses and
collections of facts filled the author's basement and testify to the
efforts to work out a match between theory and practice.In retrospect,
many of the developed functional variants turned out to be incorrect and
were rejected, corrected or modified. Countless folders with hypotheses
and collections of facts filled the author's basement and testify to
the efforts to work out a match between theory and practice.In
retrospect, many of the developed functional variants turned out to be
incorrect and were rejected, corrected or modified. Countless folders
with hypotheses and collections of facts filled the author's basement
and testify to the efforts to work out a match between theory and
This monograph presents a hypothesis about the history of the
development of the central nervous system in vertebrates. May others
decide whether the evidence presented in this work supports this theory
adequately. This could possibly promote a new perspective. The current
overestimation of the synapses in the brain, which are to be represented
as comprehensively as possible in mathematical models, neglects the
real signaling pathways in the vertebrate brain. Anyone who knows all
the neurons and their complete synaptic connections in a real human
brain does not yet know how it works. The approximately one millimeter
large roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans may serve as an example,whose 302
neurons and about 5000 chemical synapses have been completely
recognized without their interaction being fully explained. So despite
knowing the complete structure, you don't know how his brain really
Anyone who thinks that the source of intelligence is in the
cortex cortex will have to rethink their views. The human brain consists
of innumerable substructures. Every one of them is important. If a
subsystem fails, this usually has serious consequences. Doctors have
written extensive specialist books on what symptoms z. B. results in the
failure of individual neuronal structures. Examples include the
thalamus, the reticular format, the subthalamic nucleus, the striatum,
the substantia nigra pars compacta, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the
hypothalamus, the cortex, the cerebellum, but also the spinal cord and
all sensory organs.All of these substructures only play a subordinate
role in the European Union's Human Brain Project.
The Connectome project is a much better help here, as it allows
the real structures in the brain to be recognized and studied. We should
make more efforts to consider the interaction of the individual parts
in the formation of theories. Only those who have broken down a pendulum
clock, a gasoline engine or the model of a steam engine into its
individual parts can understand its function. The same applies to the
brain. Without a good knowledge of the neuronal substructures of the
vertebrate brains, their function cannot be recognized.
At this point, we would like to thank everyone who supported the author in his efforts.
Special thanks go to Ms. Almut Schüz from Tübingen and Mr.
Günther Palm from Ulm for the interest in this project, for your support
and funding. We would also like to thank Mr. Karl Zilles, Mr. Richard
Hahnloser and Mr. Ulrich Ramacher for their interest and encouraging
Special thanks go to Mr. Leo Gerbilsky from Kiel for kindly
appraising a previous version of this monograph on behalf of the
Springer publishing house, even if it did not ultimately go to press at
Much thanks go to Elisabeth Dägling for the many years of
interest in the topic, the lively exchange of ideas and the editing of
the previous version.
Many thanks to Mr. Gerhard Roth, whose wonderful book “How unique is man? The
long evolution of the brains and mind ”was the key to thinking about
the gradual emergence of the recognized neural circuits of the
vertebrate brains in the course of evolution. We don't know too little, we know too much. The wealth of facts obscures the relationships to be recognized.
Andreas Heinrich Malczan
Oranienburg, March 8th, 2020